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So/e Distributors in Andhra Pradesh 
Please Send Your Orders to.-' ' 

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4-1-435. BANK STREET, ' 

HfDERABAD-500 001 



bhaasha : aadtionika drukpatham 

Language : A Modern Outlook, A Collection of Essays 10 
Telugu, By Dr. Poranki Dakshinamurty. 

First Edition, November 1992 
Poranki Dakshinamurty 
Copies: 500 

Price: 36/- 



Publishet : 

Smt. P. Varalakshmi, 

H.No. 1-100, Chaitanyapuri, Hyderabad- 500 036. 



Sole Distributors : 
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Hyderabad-500001. 



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Hyderabad, Vijayavada, Visakhapatnam, 
Guntur, Tirupati Hanumakonda. 
Anatapur, Kakinada, 



Printed by Sri B. Nagender, Shivaji Press, 
4-4-53 Gunj Bazaar, 
Secunderabad-500 003. 



(1949-50) 

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(Noam Chomsky) 



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"Aristocracy and exclusiveness tend to final overthrow, 
in language as in politics". 

Prof. Whitney. 

"Language 'is no 'better and no worse than the men wbo 
speak it." 

Prof. Lounsbury 



s', 1970 esK^ 80) 



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. . 

Language Life and death |S5^bQocCb. 1911 
Sb^exs (Greek Myths 



1911 










87 



So/? 



(Minute of Dissent) eso^ 

^Ss?6 A Memorandam on Modern 

A Defence of Literary Teiugu ^o^^?SS) To3 










38 



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tftftf 



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(Subject) L sSo-!SaJS a-^'Ss'g l !&, S$d&zr^ (Second language.) 

feoc^elb ^S^ ' 



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44 

sirfS 



OPMI 
: 'The vernacular has been split 

f 

into two sections-the tongue which is understanded of the people, 
and the literary dialect, known only through the press and not 
intelligible to these who do not know Sanskrit. Literature has thus 
been divorced from the great masses of the population and to 
the literary classes', eso*^, 4 &p? s?oA!S v 



(t) 



(4) 
(SV HP ?Ss5 
(6) 



) 8 



45" 



ea 



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n CQ 



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> 

ol 

&s^o eipSS^aJo specs' m ^^ ^e^^) ss^ 

16 



a 
s 



4'6 



a, "I. 

. It is grammatically wrong to call such forms 
'passive'. Genuine Telugu has no passive voice, it does not 
require it. It employs other devices which serve the same 
purpose for which the passive is used in other languages, e.g. 
"Sans, r^c&epo; Tel, S&(s&A; Sfrf^o Tel. S6AS&, c lt is torn, 



S 



1910 

i& &&*-. ^S^d S^pd 
io. 



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55 



47 



(Telugu Academy) 

O 836^) rOO^SOD 

dSo^>o 5^db. ^^)\ 
ol o 

S^gSte^od&o 



O CD 

So 

eo 

]$& 
r? S)^a^OLp6b. 



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48 



on 



1010 



'Whether or not the final mu ^sS) which Sanskritio 
neuter nouns take in the literary dialect correctly represented a 
speech sound which really existed in the past, the spoken form 
with an anuswara has claims to be considered at least as an- 
cient as the form in /^w (Sfo)," cS^^dtfptfs'e <*o6o) ^ 



Y 



49 



The Arabic Language Question in Egypt 



s$*tf&. 



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1986) 



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(dialects) 



51 



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35 



. s^a 3962e^ 
25<s8s5tfVo. si^ 1971 ^ 



1992 ^> 14 



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56 



1992 



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o o " 



/dialect atlas] H^CP 
(dialect areas) 



o<S 



^^g'o 5cpgroao), 



. 1992 



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(LinguisticsW 

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59 



', 1972) 



6 



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61 



M 



14) 

: **A technical term is the name given to a 
technical concept whose meaning we already understand." 

20) 



2. 

18) 



6*cSo 



o 

, DNA, 



coco 



53^' 



, drt3u Sb. ob-ssSbb bDdoS", D. D. T. = Dichldro 
diphenyle trichloroethane (& 



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6S 



4. 



64 



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(tip. es&. 7) 



03 



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67 

Stf^efefc. 



"The name of a thing is quite external to the nature of 
that thing. I know nothing about a man simply bscacuse I know 
that he is called James." (Capital New York 1929 P. 77). 



(32)^ a,^ ^c?^tf so r^doco 93.94) 

A tumbler is assuredly both a glass cylinder and a drinking 
vessel. But there are more than these two properties, qualities 
or facets to it; there are an infinite number of them, an infinite 
number of 'mediacies' and relationships with the rest of the 
world. A tumbler Is a heavy object which can be used as a 
missile; it caa serve as a paper weight, a receptacle for a cap- 
tive butter-fly, or a valuable object with on artistic engraving 
or desiga 1 and this has nothing at all to do with whether or 
not it can be used for drinking, is made of glass, is cylindrical 
or not, and so on and soforth....** (&*. es&. 5) 



wolf, sioAs^^ wolf, tf^S^sier* volk 



&oxo<3. 



68 



eo 



CO CO 



CD ^ B O 

, sop, 



CO O 



CO 3 "3) 



2. 



3. 



sS<53S$J*tfo* 

Q d 

o. 



89 



4. 



. sjo 



i 

L 



i ^1) the front part 

of the head (2) expression of countenance (to make faces') 
-outward appearance (4) the front part of a building. b<S 



a, s 



oeo W co 

A^^ ' 



gB.ea', 'l!>(jear)$a a .tf S .e S '! ' 



o-eoa^as. S^L 
: airman, flyer, flying-man; also, too 



. ACT. understaDd, realise, comprehend. _ 
^^ sSSi-Rs-^soo, : courage, valour, daume"ssness, grit 
gust; to monkey, to imitate; to begin, to fire away. 

oo<s ra^ sso-es ra^a^s s&aotftfo ^a^o. 

English language, English tongu^ a 
. eoo^ s^^arti a s^cpag mother .to D gue 
mother language 



( 



how) es 






) h 
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,a 



government 

lorr y 
P st 

. . 
ministry 



Administration 

truck 

mail 

"bway 

department 



!$sS . 



, 



71 



630*01* 3 



* o 



11) Sfc^S 



"It is natural to long for stability in a universe of cha- 
nge, to try to pin things down and fix them. But it can't be 
done. The whole of nature is in a flux, as so is the whole of 
the life of man, and we might as well accept the fact. It is 
not really much good clinging to the bank ; we have to push 
out into the flux and swim." /S&& 267V 



8. 

eo 



"Technical terms-come into being for exactly the same 
reasons as anyother items in the language : because there are 
things, events, objects, properties and so on- to be named. 
What distinguishes technical terminology is the named things 
are specialized categories, and it is because the categories 



72 

are found to be needed for observation and action that spec- 
ialized terms arise." (s&&> 7). 



48). 



gorY sso 



I. "It is concepts and categories that matter in the early 
phases of teaching a new subject and not mere techni- 
cal terms which would at best be empty tokens unless 
the whole network of thought which necessitated their 
emergency is not comprehended in the new language in 
question. 



73 



2. The concepts tliat technical terms convey can be des- 
criptively explained in any regional languages using 
where necessary the international terms as occurring 
in standard English text books. 

3. After 'naturalisation 5 of the new concepts, new techni- 
cal terms develop in the target language within its own 
frame of reference and as part of its own classifica- 
tory system. 

4. Any attempt at translating one technical term of the 
host language by one term in the borrowing language 
is bound to fail since it ignores the fact that no two 
languages classify concepts identically." 



2. 



4. 



74 

5. 



9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 
18. 



7. B- r o: 



L 

Djeo 
a y 

8. 



14. ..o Oon-oAoefiSo, Sfc 



CO O 



16. 



17. 



18. 



19. 

20. 

21. 



22. 



"IsSo 



'7. 



836Ao>. 






77 



S 



SJSPOD asi^ r^^tS SDCTOD 



Snd55a\5 T> eO 

j80^, ^a^dbeop (&*. w&. 15) 

*'.. It will not do assume that mastering a subject 
means simply learning a set of technical terms, as if these 
had the status of passwords. We often meet the request, 
even from specialists -in other fields, the very people who 
ought to know better : 'Can you help me? It'll only take 
a couple of minutes I just need a name for something I 
don't know what to call it." This form of words shows clea- 
rly that the questioner is deluding himself; what he needs is 
at theory. The only answer is ; 'Just call them a.b and c or 
red and yellow or carrots, looks and cabbages If names are 
all you need, these will sufice it is the categories that 
count." If the category is invalid or wrongly defined no 
elegant technical term will save it from futility. The struc- 
ture of a terminology should reflect the structure of the cate- 
gories concerned, as in the naming of classes of chemical 
compounds" 



78 



, {06 



salt; sS^^^oS* poJlen, fruit; 
D&)o6sr s fatigue; sT&gV&oS" 8 work, force, 
power, current, resistence. -^ 



2.. 

(^5"-^5"V milky- way. 

3. So^^Sc'SDC^ex) ar^S ^r?6^ 

rSo' esodpdb. &CP. ejo^S" 5r2ic&oa bacillus, corolla, cortex, 
genus, fours, quantum, saliva, stamen ; 
cotyledon, iris, larynx, pyrites, thorax 



4. 



^. *, So. 1, S&&- 50). ^ 
KsS:^o5sStS5^. 

5. 

=6. 



loan-word (S^^S SP^^ lehn-wort), 
(telephone). 



. chloro. 
phyll. LA&55*&3* ^^5^ w^sSdJo S^gei). s^) chloros ^ 

* - 



, phyllon 



li 

Ci O 

)^^c5 ? S5?6^s5^o s^&dbt^di^D i ~^!&>x 



ge^b. ^od)6^ S^c^o^^)^ vita 



haemoglobin 

SDCP^O). *tf o' 
iA&55.sic&o& 

L. 





7- s5 



10). 



dxj soS&>j. qoA^?^ electricity 
fire-ghost efc horizon sky-sill & 



sSsSStfoe*8 



, S5o5" 



80 



53 



si to I) 



, -trots', 



'81 



'^OD, ^8 tf^O 

co . 



^o6x>o<5. 



8,0^80^^0^. 



3d.SSo&o.eSej 

O 



6) 



82 



^3 



17) ?5 



8. 



(&.. e&. 13) 

"The replacement of textual material in one language by equi- 
valent textual material in other language"^ 20). 




88 



dress 



^^> 

a 



morning' 



CO 



'I have beea writing since 



tf& 8D^3 



eo 

3 

co 



84 



od 

ex, ej w ~* 



/, Administrative terms 

Account 

Agriculture 

Character 

Press-lDfromation Bureau 

Legislative Assembly 

Pact 

Ability ..... d v . .. id . 

Abnormal 

Abolish 

Tribal Welfare Officer 



2. History 
Background 
8. Psychology 
Abstinence 
4. Linguistics 
Malapropism 
Technique 

5 Sociology etc. 
Accuracy 
Action 



85 



.Distribution 

Family 

Industrialization 

6. Medical Sciences 
.Malaria 

Nerve 
Period 
Pressure 
Preparation 
Pulse Volume 

7. Sciences 

Expansion Valve |J$Sp5~ SPO 

Over Voltage 

8. Agriculture 
Breed 
.Breaking 
Climate 

Drift stand 
Moment 
Monetary policy 
Perfect Market 
Record,. 



86 



70-80 



So-0. JfcJSaJfeo ^c>^& EdfrS. 






. *efn- 



55 



woff 



87 



9. 



"l^oo 



. Sea &. 



1971) 









e& 1962 



1971. 



1965 



A Note (Appendix II of the 
Gwynn Committee's Report) 
1967 

A Note (Appendix III b of the 
- Gwynn Committee's Report 
1967 



7. 



.11. Barber, C. L., 



12. Berezin, P.M., 



13. Catford, J.C., 



14. Gwynn, J.P L., 



89 
4 



1968 



1969 



. 9. 3odji3&a>, i^.a.^S, 
.10. 



1968 



1969 



15. 



The Story of Language, The 
English Language Book Society 
& Pan Books London 1965 

Lectures on Linguistics, High 
School Publishing House, 
Moscow 1969 

A Linguistic Theory of Trans- 
lationj Oxford "University 
Press, London 1967 

Report of the (Gwynn) Commi- 
ttee for setting up an institute 
for the development of the 
Telugu Language, Hyderabad 
1967 

Halliday, M.A.K., The Linguistic Sciences and 

Me In tosh & Strevens, Language Teaching, Longmans 

1964 



16. Katre, SM., 

17. Raghnvira, 



Lexicography, Annamalai Uni- 
versity, Annamalainagar 1965 

The Consolidated Great English- 
Indian Dictionary of Techni- 



90 

cal Terms, The International 
Academy of Indian Culture, 
Nagpur 1950 

18. Somayaji, G, J. 5 Technical Terminology in the 

present context,Commission for 
Scientific and Technical Ter- 
minology, Ministry of Educa- 
tion and Youth Services, Govt. 
of India 1970 

19. C.S.T.T., Glossaries 



o. 



. 5) 



65020^ 



si co 



o<3 a 



So 



CO C 

oo sr-r? 



00X56. s 



COD. 



G^ 1992 ^^31 



c LnoS^o' 



|jS(3r>83^o 



. e?c c-&*> 






, ) s'QoeT 8 ISjocspcl ^s 3 ^?^ 

CO 



94 



(4) 



dr^CD.* 



tfOA* 



8o)7 , 






*, .o. g stfo a,sbo. gs > 8 ^ ^^^ &OToa . 



-* Mo. B-SoftS^ ^ 85 ,^ ^^ s ^^^7^ 
esto^ sj=|?So ^^^Sb v J 



9 



CO 

A 

co 



&o> 



a. 






(4V 



i s5^^"^>"fe 

^ 5 



96 

&efr tfjfc* 'SUSP'S;)' 



S&S35& SSid&O. CF&i &850 



1968 



o-oaofi 



8 



b 550x1^ 



s.S'j.ti. 



&;So esSS" iScSyesyoSo SScSpflo. e [Soir'ass'a^ sag 






_ 
SSb-cSSbsScs-eS', zJ^tfs-o ^So^ s5go 



93 



'sj^tf 37-3F&"! spg', s^sSsSg I 



coeo 

^Q^o 

) 



(There were more free-thinking men in Pre-Independent India) 



99 



dSb. 1958 ^^ 



b. 1955 "^laoeDfib 29^ 



100 



eStcx. K 

L^ 
&s5sS 



' (1982) 

6c3&cf*CSb^cso3bO. 

' ' " 



tS^.SScp. Sccoo5^o "S^.S, 

CO ' ',...' ' ' 



pii.i^,a,^.5'/^^ e^g^ 

. .' . ' ' . v . . ..' . ':. ...... ..' ..... ' : --. 

1988a* ^^O. r e e..S'&"tf& So:^ ^s^iSb 6*83^^ 



a 



1990 

co 

1969^)00 



27800 sSnyexOr 8 'sSs^s ^jc&^^o' (1980) 



^"SoS" litfp 

ScxoSScpo 



co 



Soorfx 
^7? 



102 



r?^), 



cS 

o 



9 



53-5 



entries 



104 



S&OCP sp^ / 



oeo CD 



Ao^dSb. ^>8 n 

""> 



"06" 



105 



cJi^o i&-S^&ofi. Sfc-crf^cC* 6X ; 



(1991 

^ - ' ^T 1 3. <" A X 

sC CO ticO \rOUj ]. 



10 



CO 

0*8 tf 8 



ai .2000, 



Spoken language 
Spoken style- sp 



^o6?SS. ee^S Classical language, Classical style 



- SSOdXPOfiPO. 5*0) 53 

$). 5tfea1i>ao&>o^>, a, "I 



it) 



107 

eo"> sSTDg'orp, 53*3$.. 



CO Q CO 



grammar^ 

*=* 



(internal 



\Sotf o"> o < 

oJ S) oJ OJQ 



(idiolects) 



(dialect)lo6 x S^^_& SS^ooa. 
sScxo. 



108 









, c5oS5&^eo a^g 






1090) 

habit, custom, manner of acting or living, practice, wage; kav; 
iathas, a special particular interpretation (esp of a concise exp- 
lanation of a grammatical form). 1952$* 

/ 



(1) A short explanation of a grammatical aphorism; (2) A 
mode of expression or interpretation; ( 3] Behaviour, manner 
of acting; conduct, course. 5s:3 e 5>o style 



(Roughly speaking, two utterances in the same language whsch 
convey approximately the same information, but which are diff- 
erent in their linguistic structure, can be said to differ in style. 
He came too soon- He arrived prematurely- C. F. Hockett, A 
Course in Modern Linguistics, 1958, P. 556 . 



range 



110 



u 



. ss 



606^06 



^i rSa 

*- 



066-06. SJCP 



5^ 6" E^ o ^ dSo K5;y <&> . 



than style; 8. (jS 
humour ^.S; 4. 
style: 5, 



3oo. 

7. 



, Elizabe- 
5 Yankee 

, Mexican 
. 6. 



Ill 

t, L. _ - * 2> Romatic style, as^tfcSa 

); 8. ^s'L s5 L 8dilfSao .g : . ^a-ai.-^^^ a.a ; 9. 



.3;. 10.. 



, & 



S56?*tfS eatfif^steo 

aotfS^. 1872 -aotfeo 1972 
^cSor? Bo& sS^ea^.^tfdptfsS^: [. 

sa 2, ^^ s &?6 

a s-oo&oO 






112 



I960) 



3 dcpSSep'r fi 



, 197 1 ecoo^ ^rvtf^&rSo^ sa^oo 

S Sol^MSiN, fedi 

^^ 
ol 



*\ &: ' 



144.6) 



spgSSsJ6S'o 



s^gg'^'es 



d 



o 






n 



O CO C3 

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3. '<i9&spap ss5sexr'&', wtftf f o&3 2, 

es?6^a 1958, 

444), 



1 sp 

L 

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^ftofl. C^B 

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a,"! 



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g^tfeso 



ol 



(1.9) ' 

(1.48) ' 



(1-57) 4 
(1.81) ' 
(1 109) ' 



180 



(2.95) ' 
(2.118) ' 
(8.80) ( <3_tf 

(3.92) ' 

(.218) 
(3.277) 4 

(3.439) ' 



(.8) 
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(1.32) M atfrtfi*rfis>dg. f 

(2.102) 'cpex>' 



(.96) 

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(1.84) * 
(8.110) c 
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(8.271) ' 
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(2.188) c aaao$' 



181 

(1,55) ' 



(1.100) ' 

(1.118) ' 



2??s (1,118) c s 
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(2.78) 



(2.100) 



(2-108) 
(2.116) ' 

(2.12-4) 'i&^-cS- sSStfo; Itf 



K? (2.127) ') 

(2.142) ' 
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(2.217) ; 



(8.55) ' 

(3.58) 



(3.84) ' 

(3.226) C 



(3.239) C 
sSfcgg 

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fcggftStfo e 

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(3.849) ' 



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(1.160) '2>tfa)agJoa3S 

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(2.64) ' 
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184 '- 

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'(1.83) 4 &fc 
126) ' 



136 



co eo co/ 



(1.64) c 



(1.72) ' 
(1.82) ' 



^o (1.86) 4 So 






(1-86) 



(1.101) ' 
(1.121) ' 



(1.121) ' 
(1.126) c 



(1.128) 



(1,130) 
(1.131) l 
(1.133) *a,g 
d (1.142) C 

(1.147) ' 



(2.69) .* 



(2,66) ' 



(2.85) 4 



(2 



rto /2.108V ^fc 
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^2.125) '^5- 



(3.287) ' 

(3.239) 

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tf So 



138 

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(3.261) 



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(1.34) 
(2.136) 
(3.113) 

g (2.112) '&tfo-fc, ^^SP' 
(fo 3 s^^o) S&&&^^ (1.154) 

, sp 33J3eyea*&*i (1.109) 

7. 



(1.16) .'S3' 
(1.72) ' 
(1.106) ' 



139? 



<> (1.109) 



^S (l.HO) fi 

(1.140) C 



(2.70) 



sSo (2.70) 



(2.172) -*Oto 
(8.72) ^ 
- (8.81) 



140 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 
8. 

9. 

10 



11. 



12. 
13. 

14. 

15. 
16. 
17. 



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(1.28) 



(2.68) 

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(2.190) 

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gg), 



(1x122) 



(1.127) 
ss^efo Ssi&Sb^^ (1.154) 



(2.70) 



( L87 ) 



(2.70) 



i t J 

L* JL, 



18. 



19. ^sxH stfgtf ^oa?6gi s &&. ^3.68) 

20. 



21. 






s^^o ^oSi'rOoSp^^^xp, 6rs5o 



22. es-S &>otfc6o& 

Cs 

atf^csfio c^& (8.263) 

23. 

> ^o^&oa^, ^ S&^)5pjS (3.426) 

24. 

63 



(8.481) 
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(232 
129 

32 



142 



Q^o iSr 



(1. 



(8.25). 



2. 



3. 



r?6 



*>% 



. I. 



(1.84), 3E?&s5^as (1.132), 



(1.103), <^&ao& (2.137), 



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145 



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14? 



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b DS^co 



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148 



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